M (dirt, defilement). Mental impurity. Poverty of spirit. Mental pollution, troubles. There are ten kilesas:
- False views (sakayaditthi)
- Doubt (vicikiccha)
- Belief in the effectiveness of rituals
- Sensuous pleasure (raga)
- Aversion (dosa)
- Passion towards rupa jhanas (pertaining to the sphere of forms)
- Passion towards arupa jhanas (pertaining to the formless sphere)
- Self pride (mana)
- restlessness and worries (uddhacca)
- Ignorance (avijja)
'defilements', are mind-defiling, unwholesome qualities. Vis.M. XXII, 49, 65:
"There are 10 defilements, thus called because they are themselves defiled, and because they defile the mental factors associated with them. They are:
(1) greed (lobha),
(2) hate (dosa),
(3) delusion (moha),
(4) conceit (māna),
(5) speculative views (ditthi),
(6) skeptical doubt (vicikicchā),
(7) mental torpor (thīna),
(8) restlessness (uddhacca);
(9) shamelessness (ahirika),
(10) lack of moral dread or unconscientiousness (anottappa)."
For 1-3, s. mūla; 4, s. māna; 5, s. ditthi; 6-8, s. nīvarana; 9 and 10, s. ahirika-anottappa.
The ten are explained in Dhs. 1229f and enumerated in Vibh. XII.
No classification of the k. is found in the Suttas, though the term occurs quite often in them. For the related term, upakkilesa ('impurities') different lists are given - (App.).
The word defilement is a common translation of the Pali word kilesa, which more literally translated means “torment of the mind.” We know directly from our own experience that when certain states arise strongly within us, they have a tormenting quality—states like anger, fear, guilt, and greed. When they knock at the door and we invite them in, we lose touch with the fundamentally pure nature of our mind, and then we suffer.
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