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Chapter 12 - Nissaya Paccayo

Or Dependence Condition

Nissaya paccayo ti- cattāro khandhā arūpino annamannam nissaya paccayena paccayo.
Cattāro mahā bhūtā annamannam nissaya paccayena paccayo.
Okkantikkhane nāma rūpam annamannam nissaya paccayena paccayo.

Nissaya paccaya means dependent comdition. Example of dependent condition are

  1. trees have to depend on the earth or the ground, without which there will not be any tree.
  2. paitings have to depend on the cloth where they are painted, without which there will not be any painting.
  3. earthern pots have to depend on the earth material, without this there will not be any earthern pot at all.

In the 1st sentence of above Pali it is said that there are 4 nama kkhandhas or 4 non material aggregates. These four aggregates have to depend on each other and this is called annamanna nissaya paccaya or mutuality dependent condition. As these 4 namakkhandhas arise at the same time they can be in the conditional relationship called sahajata nissaya paccaya or conasence dependent condition. This means that without another of others each cannot arise and each has to depend on another and as they arise at the same time, and mutually dependent they are called both annamanna nissaya paccaya or mutuality dependent condition and sahajata nissaya or conasence dependent condition.

By the same token all of 4 maha bhuta rupas or 4 great elements have to depend on each other. When there is pathavi there are also tejo, vayo and apo and vice versa for all other three maha bhuta rupas. Without one component another or others cannot arise at all and this is mutually dependent condition and called annamanna nissaya paccaya. As they also arise at the same time they can be called as sahajata nissaya paccaya or conaesence dependent condition.

In the same way, at the time of conception or at the time of patisandhi or rebirth or linking from the past life and current life there are 4 namakkhandha of patisandhi citta and cetasikas and there also is hadaya vatthu which is rupakkhandha in the new life. As soon as patisandhi citta arises patisandhi kammaja rupa called hadaya rupa arises at the same time and they both depend on each other. When in pancavokara bhumi or when in realms where all 5 khandhas are available patisandhi citta cannot arise without patisandhi kammaja rupa hadaya vatthu, which is the seat of mind. So these dhammas are also serving to each other as annamanna nissaya paccaya or mutuality dependent condition and they can also be called sahajata nissaya paccaya or conaesence dependence condition.

The paccaya dhamma or causal dhamma or conditioning dhamma or supporting dhamma in each example of above three are

  1. each of 4 namakkhandhas or 4 non material aggregates
  2. each of 4 maha bhuta rupa or 4 great elements
  3. each of 4 patisandhi namakkhandha, and patisandhi kammaja hadaya vatthu rupa

The resultant dhamma or paccayuppanna dhamma or conditioned dhamma or supported dhamma are all these dhamma as listed in the causal dhamma. The relationship between the cause and the effect is nissaya paccaya or dependent condition

Citta cetasikā dhamma citta samutthanānam rūpānam nissaya paccayena paccayo.

There are citta and cetasikas as dhammas and there are aslo citta samutthana rupa or citta derived rupa or citta generated rupa.

Here while nama dhamma of citta and cetasikas are serving as causal dhamma citta samutthana rupa or citta derived rupas are not dependent condition for their causal citta and cetasika. So this is one way relationship. That is the cause or causal dhamma or the supporting dhamma or the conditioning dhamma is citta and cetasika and the resultant dhamma or the conditioned dhamma orthe supported dhamma or paccayuppanna dhamma here is only citta samutthana rupa or cittaja rupa or citta derived rupa or citta generated rupa. The relationship between the cause and the effect is called nissaya paccaya or dependent condition.

This means that without citta and cetasikas dhamma these rupas will never arise at all. But citta and cetasikas never depend on their conditioned dhamma cittaja rupa.

Mahā bhūtā upādā rūpanam nissaya paccayena paccayo. Maha bhuta rupas or 4 great element are serving as supporting condition called dependent condition to 24 upādā rūpa. But 4 maha bhuta rupas do not depend on 24 upādā rupa and this is also one way relationship. The cause or causal dhamma, supporting dhamma, conditioning dhamma, paccaya dhamma is 4 maha bhuta rupa. The supported dhamma, resultant dhamma, conditioned dhamma, paccayuppanna dhamma is 24 upādā rupa. The relationship between the cause and the effect is called nissaya paccaya or dependent condition.

To repeat what 4 maha bhuta rupas and what 24 upādā rupas

a) 4 maha bhuta rupas ( as other rupas are upādā rupas these 4 rupas are called anupādā rupas)

  1. pathavi or earth element
  2. tejo or fire element
  3. vayo or air element
  4. apo or water element

b) 24 upādā rupas

  1. cakkhuppasada or cakkhu pasada or eye sensitivity
  2. sota pasada or ear sensitivity
  3. ghana pasada or nose sensitivity
  4. jivha pasada or tongue sensitivity
  5. kaya pasada or body sensitivity
  6. rupa (vanno or colour) or form, shape, figure
  7. sadda or sound
  8. gandha or smell
  9. rasa or taste ( and photthabba or touch of pathavi, tejo, vayo)
  10. purisatta bhava rupa or maleness
  11. itthatta bhava rupa or femaleness
  12. hadaya rupa which is hadaya vatthu or heart
  13. jivita rupa or life faculty
  14. ahara rupa or oja or nutriment
  15. pariccheda rupa or akāsa or space
  16. kaya vinatti rupa or gesture
  17. vaci vinatti rupa or speech
  18. rupa lahuta rupa or lightness of rupa
  19. rupa muduta rupa or flexibility of rupa
  20. rupa kammanannata rupa or workableness of rupa
  21. upācaya rupa or initial formation of rupa
  22. santati rupa or sustained formation of rupa
  23. jarata rupa or getting old of rupa
  24. aniccata rupa or passing away of rupa

Cakkāyatanam cakkhu vinnana dhātuyā tam sampayuttakānanca dhammānam nissaya paccayena paccayo.

Cakkhāyatanam here means cakkhāyatana or cakkhu ayatana or eye sensitivity or eye base or cakkhu pasada rupa. This dhamma that is cakkhu pasada rupa is now serving as a causal dhamma or supporting dhamma or conditioning dhamma or paccaya dhamma.

The resultant dhamma or conditioned dhamma or supported dhamma or paccayuppanna dhamma here is cakkhu vinnana dhātu or cakkhu vinnana citta and its associated cetasikas of 7 universal mental factors of phassa or contact, vedana or feeling, sanna or perception, cetana or volition, ekaggata or one pointedness, jivitindriya or mental life, and manasikara or attention.

Here it is also one way relationship. That is cakkhu pasada rupa is serving as dependent condition for cakkhu vinnana citta and its associated cetasikas. But cakkhu pasada rupa does not depend on cakkhu vinnana citta or other cetasikas. So the cause and the effect are mentioned dhamma and the relationship between the cause and the effect is called nissaya paccaya or dependent condition.

Sotāyatanam sota vinnana dhātuyā tam sampayutakānanca dhammānam nissaya paccayena paccayo.
Ghanāyatanam ghāna vinnana dhātutā tam sampayuttakānanca dhammānam nissaya paccayena paccayo.
Jivhāyatanam jivhā vinnana dhātuyā tam sampayuttakānanca dhamānam nissaya paccayena paccayo.
Kayāyatanam kāya vinnana dhātuyā tam sampayuttakānanca dhammānam nissaya paccayena paccayo.

By the same token, all other 4 pasada rupa are serving as dependent condition for their correspondent vinnana cittas and their associated cetasikas of 7 universal mental factors of phassa, vedana, cetana, sanna, ekaggata, jivitindriya, and manasikāra. But nama dhamma are not serving as dependent condition for pasada rupas. So it is also one way relationship. Without 5 pasada rupas any of 10 pancavinnana cittas will not arise and so their related cittas, cetasikas etc will not follow and so there is no kama objects and kama cittas at all. This case can be seen in case of arupa brahmas who do not have any of 28 rupas. Pasada rupas are serving as nissaya paccaya or dependent condition for their respective vinnana cittas when they arise.

Yam rūpam nissaya mano dhātu ca mano vinnana dhātu ca vattanti, tam rūpam mano dhātuyā ca mano vinnana dhātuyā ca tam sampayuttakānanca dhammānam nissaya paccayena paccayo.

Mano dhātu are 3 cittas. They are 2 sampaticchana cittas of akusala and kusala origin and panca dvara avajjana citta. Cakkhu vinnana cittas or any panca vinnana cittas are always followed by mano dhātu called sampaticchana citta or receiving consciousness. This mano dhātu has to depend on hadaya vatthu and hadaya vatthu serves as dependent condition. So do other following mano vinnana dhātu such as santirana cittas or investigating consciousness, votthapana citta or determining consciousness, javana cittas or mental impulsive consciousness, tadārammana cittas or retaining consciousness all have to depend on hadaya vatthu.

Here hadaya vatthu serves as conditioning dhamma to mano dhātu and mano vinnana dhātu. But hadaya vatthu here do not depend on mano dhātu or mano vinnana dhātu unlike patisandhi kammaja hadaya vatthu, which has to depend on patisandhi citta. In this example the cause or causal dhamma or supporting dhamma or conditioning dhamma or paccaya dhamma is hadaya vatthu and the results or resultant dhamma or conditioned dhamma or supported dhamma or paccayuppanna dhamma are mano dhatu and its associated 10 cetasikas and cittaja rupas, mano vinnana dhātu and their associated cetasikas and their associated cittaja rupas.

The relationship between the cause and the effect in these examples are called nissaya paccaya or dependent condition. This means that when the dependent condition is not there, there cannot arise depended dhammas and this means that if there is no cause there will be no effect. If there is no cause there is no result.

Nissaya paccaya or dependent condition may be sahajata nissaya or conasence dependentcondition, or vatthu purejāta nissaya or base prenasence dependent condition, or vatthārammana purejāta nissaya or base object prenasence dependent condition.

Sahajata nissaya or conasence dependent condition can be seen in the interactions between 4 nama kkhandhas that is 89 cittas and 52 cetasikas ( vedana kkhandha or vedana, sanna kkhandha or sanna, sankhara kkhandha or sankhara or other 50 cetasikas after extraction of vedana and sanna from 52 cetasikas, and vinnana kkhandha or 89 cittas) and other dhammas.

Here other dhammas are conditioned dhamma or supported dhammaor paccayuppanna dhamma and they are 4 nama kkhandhas ( 89 cittas and 52 cetasikas), cittaja rupas or consciousness derived materials, and patisandhi kammaja rupa which is hadaya vatthu. In this example 4 namakkhandhas condition 4 namakkhandhas and associated rupakkhandha of cittaja rupa and patisandhi kammaja rupa. As they arise together it is conasence condition and as 4 namakkhandhas have to depend on each other, cittaja rupas have to depend on 4 namakkhandhas, and patisandhi kammaja rupa which is hadaya vatthu also have to depend on 4 namakkhandhas they are being served by conasence dependent condition.

4 maha bhuta rupa or 4 great elements serve as conasence dependent condition for 4 maha bhuta rupas and all other 24 upada rupas. This is not mutuality or annamanna. So this is one way and the direction is from 4 maha bhuta rupas to 4 maha bhuta rupas and other 24 upada rupas. That is the direction is not from 24 upada rupas to 4 maha bhuta rupas. This means that 24 upada rupas do not serve as dependent condition for 4 maha bhuta rupas. Or 4 maha bhuta rupas do not depend on 24 upada rupas. 4 maha bhuta rupas and 4 maha bhuta rupas along with 24 upada rupas arise at the same time. So they are sahajata paccaya or conasence condition. 24 upada rupas have to depend on 4 mahabhuta rupas and so it is sahajata nissaya or conasence dependent condition. 4 maha bhuta rupas serve as conasence dependent condition for each other.

There is another dependent condition. It is vatthupurejata nissaya or base prenasence dependent condition. The paccaya dhamma or the conditioning dhamma or the supporting dhamma is 6 vatthus namely cakkhu vatthu or cakkhu pasada, sota vatthu or sota pasada, ghana vatthu or ghana pasada, jivha vatthu or jivha pasada, kaya vatthu or kaya pasada, and hadaya vatthu. They serve as purejata nissaya paccaya or prenasence dependent condition for nama dhamma concerned.

Examples are cakkhu vatthu arises at the same time of arising of rupa rupa which is serving as object or arammana. Cakkhu vatthu or cakkhu pasada last 17 cittakkhanas or 17 moments. So does rupa rupa or the object or the arammana. But as soon as cakkhu vatthu arises there is no cakkhu vinnana citta or eye consciousness but atita bhavanga citta. In the 2nd moment there is still not cakkhu vinnana citta but bhavanga calana citta. In the 3rd moment there is no cakkhu vinnana citta arises but bhavanguppaccheda citta. And in the 4th moment there is still no cakkhu vinnana citta but panca dvara avajjana citta. Cakkhu vinnana citta arises only at 5th moment when cakkhu vatthu or cakkhu pasada rupa has already been 5 moments old. So cakkhu pasada rupa arose earlier than cakkhu vinnana citta which depend on it. As cakkhu vatthu arose before cakkhu vinnana citta it is prenasence condition. As cakkhuvinnana citta has to depend on cakkhu vatthu it is dependent condition. So their relationship is purejata nissaya paccaya or prenasence dependent condition. But as the conditioning dhamma is a rupa [cakkhu pasadahere] and it is vatthu dhamma the condition is called vatthu purejata nissaya paccaya or base prenasence dependent condition.

There are 5 panca pasada rupas and they serve as vatthu dhamma. So these 5 dhammas cakkhu pasada rupa, sota pasada rupa, ghana pasada rupa, jivha pasada rupa, kaya pasada rupa can serve as conditioning dhamma called vatthu purejata nissaya or base prenasence dependent condition. The conditioning dhamma or the supporting dhamma or the paccaya dhamma here are 5 pasada rupas called panca vatthu and the conditioned dhamma or the supported dhamma or the paccayuppanna dhamma or the resultant dhamma are panca vinnana citta of corresponding arammana depending on corresponding vatthu. This vatthu purejata nissaya paccaya does not condition other dhamma in panca vinnana citta.

There is still another vatthu purejata nissaya or base prenasence dependent condition. The conditioning dhamma or paccaya dhamma or supporting dhamma is hadaya vatthu. It arises earlier as soon as arammana arises. But there are later cittas like panca dvara avajjana citta or 5-door adverting consciousness, sampaticchana citta or receiving consciousness, santirana citta or investigating consciousness, votthapana citta or determining consciousness, javana cittas or impulsive consciousness, tadarammana cittas or retaining consciousness and all these consciousness have to depend on hadaya vatthu which has arisen already. So hadaya vatthu arises before these citta and serve as prenasence condition or purejata paccaya and as these cittas have to depend on hadaya vatthu, hadaya vatthu also serves as nissaya paccaya or dependent condition. So hadaya vatthu is serving as purejata nissaya paccaya or prenasence dependent condition. As it is a vatthu it is vatthu purejata nissaya paccaya or baseprenasence dependent condition.

There is still another nissaya paccaya or dependent condition called vatthārammana purejata nissaya paccaya or base objectprenasence dependent condition. Rupa last 17 moments while citta last just 1 moment. So when rupa as arammana or object arises it arises earlier than later cittas in a vithi vara or turn of procession of consciousness.

Example is sadda or sound. It arises and when it is serving as arammana or object its co arising citta called atita bhavanga citta has passed away and there arises later and later citta in that vithi vara or turn of procession of consciousness. Example later cittas are javana cittas or impulsive consciousness. Sadda or sound arises before these javana cittas.

So sadda rupa or sound serves as prenasence condition or purejata paccaya. Again that sound serve as dependent condition. That is javana cittas have to depend on this sound without which these javana cittas can never arise. So it is purejata nissaya paccaya or prenasence dependent condition.

As sadda or sound arises at the same time when vatthas such as sota vatthu or sota pasada rupa and hadaya vatthu arise this relationship of nama dhamma (javana cittas and other mano vinnana cittas) to rupa dhammas is called vatthārammana purejata nissya paccaya or base object prenasence dependent condition.

Just before dying there arise the last hadaya vatthu. It arises 16 moments before cuti citta or dying consciousness. So when hadaya vatthu is 17 moments old that is when cuti citta arises both hadaya vatthu and cuti citta pass away at the same time.

If there is panca arammana as the last object then this arammana or object will serve as purejata nissaya paccaya for javana cittas and other mano vinnana cittas. As this arammana or object arises with hadaya vatthu and serving as purejata nissaya paccaya, this relationship between nama dhamma of javana cittas and other mano vinnana cittas and rupa dhamma hadaya vatthu and arammana which is also a rupa if it is panca arammana is called vatthārammana purejata nissaya paccaya or base object prenasence dependent condition.

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